GRADE-CERQual publications


Applying GRADE-CERQual to Qualitative Evidence Syntesis Findings - Implementation Science Supplement

Lewin S, Booth A, Glenton C, Munthe-Kaas H, Rashidian A, Wainwright M, Bohren MA, Tunçalp Ö, Colvin CJ, Garside R, Carlsen B, Langlois EV, Noyes J. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings: introduction to the series. Implement Sci. 2018 Jan 25;13(Suppl 1):2  FULL TEXT

Lewin S, Bohren M, Rashidian A, Munthe-Kaas H, Glenton C, Colvin CJ, Garside R, Noyes J, Booth A, Tunçalp Ö, Wainwright M, Flottorp S, Tucker JD, Carlsen B. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 2: how to make an overall CERQual assessment of confidence and create a Summary of Qualitative Findings table. Implement Sci. 2018 Jan 25;13(Suppl 1):10. FULL TEXT

Munthe-Kaas H, Bohren MA, Glenton C, Lewin S, Noyes J, Tunçalp Ö, Booth A, Garside R, Colvin CJ, Wainwright M, Rashidian A, Flottorp S, Carlsen B. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 3: how to assess methodological limitations. Implement Sci. 2018 Jan 25;13(Suppl 1):9. FULL TEXT

Colvin CJ, Garside R, Wainwright M, Munthe-Kaas H, Glenton C, Bohren MA, Carlsen B, Tunçalp Ö, Noyes J, Booth A, Rashidian A, Flottorp S, Lewin S. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 4: how to assess coherence. Implement Sci. 2018 Jan 25;13(Suppl 1):13. FULL TEXT

Glenton C, Carlsen B, Lewin S, Munthe-Kaas H, Colvin CJ, Tunçalp Ö, Bohren MA, Noyes J, Booth A, Garside R, Rashidian A, Flottorp S, Wainwright M. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 5: how to assess adequacy of data. Implement Sci. 2018 Jan 25;13(Suppl 1):14. FULL TEXT

Noyes J, Booth A, Lewin S, Carlsen B, Glenton C, Colvin CJ, Garside R, Bohren MA, Rashidian A, Wainwright M, Tunςalp Ö, Chandler J, Flottorp S, Pantoja T, Tucker JD, Munthe-Kaas H. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 6: how to assess relevance of the data. Implement Sci. 2018 Jan 25;13(Suppl 1):4. FULL TEXT

Booth A, Lewin S, Glenton C, Munthe-Kaas H, Toews I, Noyes J, Rashidian A, Berg RC, Nyakang'o B, Meerpohl JJ; GRADE-CERQual Coordinating Team. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 7: understanding the potential impacts of dissemination bias. Implement Sci. 2018 Jan 25;13(Suppl 1):12. FULL TEXT


Simon Lewin, Claire Glenton, Heather Munthe-Kaas, Benedicte Carlsen, Christopher J. Colvin, Metin Gülmezoglu, Jane Noyes, Andrew Booth, Ruth Garside, and Arash Rashidian. Using qualitative evidence in decision making for health and social interventions: an approach  to assess confidence in findings from qualitative evidence syntheses (GRADE-CERQual). PLoS Med 12, no. 10 (2015) 001895. FULL TEXT 

Colvin, C., Wainwright, M., Noyes, J., Munthe-Kaas, H., Garside, R., Carlsen, B., Rashidian, A., Booth, A., Glenton, C., Bohren, M., Lewin, S., Tuncalp, O. Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (CERQual): Development and Future Directions of a Novel Approach. In Chandler J, McKenzie J, Boutron I, Welch V (editors) Cochrane Methods. Cochrane DB Syst Rev 2015 Suppl 1: 45-47. 

Publications that have used GRADE-CERQual approach


Glenton C, Sorhaindo AM, Ganatra B, Lewin S. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis. BMC Public Health. 2017 Sep 21;17(1):730. FULL TEXT

Munabi-Babigumira S, Glenton C, Lewin S, Fretheim A, Nabudere H. Factors that influence the provision of intrapartum and postnatal care by skilled birth attendants in low- and middle-income countries: a qualitative evidence synthesis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD011558. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011558.pub2. FULL TEXT

Ames HMR, Glenton C, Lewin S. Parents' and informal caregivers' views and experiences of communication about routine childhood vaccination: a synthesis of qualitative evidence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD011787. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011787.pub2. FULL TEXT


Downe, S., Finlayson, K., Tunçalp, Ӧ & Metin Gülmezoglu, A. (2015). What matters to women: a systematic scoping review to identify the processes and outcomes of antenatal care provision that are important to healthy pregnant women. BJOG. 2016 Mar;123(4):529-39. FULL TEXT

Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann H, Moberg J, Brignardello-Petersen R, Akl E, et al. GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: A systematic and transparent approach to making well-informed healthcare choices: 1. Introduction. BMJ 2016; 353:i2016 FULL TEXT


Bohren MA, Vogel JP, Hunter EC, Lutsiv O, Makh SK, Souza JP, Aguiar C, Saraiva Coneglian F, Diniz AL, Tunçalp Ö, Javadi D, Oladapo OT, Khosla R, Hindin MJ, Gülmezoglu AM.The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review. PLoS Med. 2015 Jun 30;12(6):e1001847 FULL TEXT


Bohren MA, Hunter EC, Munthe-Kaas HM, Souza JP, Vogel JP, Gülmezoglu AM. Facilitators and barriers to facility-based delivery in low- and middle-income countries: a qualitative evidence synthesis. Reproductive Health. 2014; 11(1):71. FULL TEXT

Whitaker R, Hendry M, Booth A, Carter B, Charles J, Craine N, Edwards RT, Lyons M, Noyes J, Pasterfield D, Rycroft-Malone J, Williams N. Intervention Now To Eliminate Repeat Unintended Pregnancy in Teenagers (INTERUPT): a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, qualitative and realist synthesis of implementation factors and user engagement. BMJ Open. 2014;4(4):e004733. FULL TEXT


Colvin CJ, de Heer J, Winterton L, Mellenkamp M, Glenton C, Noyes J, Lewin S, Rashidian A. A systematic review of qualitative evidence on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of task-shifting in midwifery services. Midwifery. 2013; 29(10):1211-21. FULL TEXT

Glenton C, Colvin CJ, Carlsen B, Swartz A, Lewin S, Noyes J, Rashidian A. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of lay health worker programmes to improve access to maternal and child health: qualitative evidence synthesis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013 (10). Art. No.: CD010414. FULL TEXT

Rashidian A, Shakibazadeh E, Karimi- Shahanjarini A, Glenton C, Noyes J, Lewin S, Colvin C, Laurant M. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of doctor-nurse substitution strategies in primary care: qualitative evidence synthesis (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013, 2: CD010412. FULL TEXT

Munthe-Kaas HM, Hammerstrøm KT et al. Effekt av og erfaringer med kontinuitetsfremmende tiltak i barnevernsinstitusjoner. Report from Kunnskapssenteret no. 4−2013. Oslo: Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services. 2013.


Lewin S, Bosch-Capblanch X, Oliver S, Akl EA, Vist GE, et al. Guidance for Evidence-Informed Policies about Health Systems: Assessing How Much Confidence to Place in the Research Evidence. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(3): e1001187.      FULL TEXT

WHO. Optimizing health worker roles to improve access to key maternal and newborn health interventions through task shifting. 2012. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at 



  • Lewin S, Glenton C. Are we entering a new era for qualitative research? Using qualitative evidence to support guidance and guideline development by the World Health Organization. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2018. 17:126. FULL TEXT

  • Lewin S, Glenton C. Using evidence synthesis in the development of health systems guidance. In: Langlois EV, Daniels K, Akl EA. Evidence synthesis for health policy and systems: a methods guide. Geneva, Switzerland: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. 2018: 142-152. FULL TEXT

  • Langlois E, Tunçalp Ӧ, Norris SL, Askew I, Ghaffar A. Qualitative evidence to improve guidelines and health decision-making. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2018;96:79-79A. FULL TEXT


  • Using evidence from qualitative research to develop WHO guidelines. In: WHO handbook for guideline development. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. FULL TEXT


Boeiji, R., va Wesel, F., Alisic, E. (2011). Making a difference towards a method for weighing the evidence in a qualitative synthesis. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 17, 657-663. ABSTRACT 

Campbell R, Pound P, Morgan M, Daker-White G, Britten N, Pill R, et al. Evaluating meta-ethnography:
systematic analysis and synthesis of qualitative research. Health Technol Assess 2011;15(43). JOGG. FULL TEXT

Dixon-Woods, M., Cavers, D., Agarwal, S., Annandale, E., Arthur, A., Harvey, J., Hsu, R., Katbamna, S, Olsen, R., Smith, L., Riley, R., Sutton, A,J. (2006). Conducting a critical interpretive synthesis of the literature on access to healthcare by vulnerable groups. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 6:35. FULL TEXT


Santiago-Delefosse, M., Gavin, A., Bruchez, C., Stephen, S.L., & Roux, P. (01/2016). Quality of Qualitative Research in the Health Sciences: Analysis of the Common Criteria Present in 58 Assessment Guidelines by Expert Users. Soc Sci Med. 2016 Jan;148:142-51. FULL TEXT

Garside, R. Should we appraise the quality of qualitative research reports for systematic reviews, and if so, how? Innovations: The European journal of social science research 2014; 27 (1):67 - 79. ABSTRACT

Bowen, G.A.(2008). Naturalistic inquiry and the saturation concept: a research note. Qualitative Research, 2008, 8,137. FULL TEXT 

M Dixon-Woods, R L Shaw, S Agarwal, J A Smith, Tong A, Sainsbury P, Craig J. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. Int J Qual Health Care. 2007; 19: 349-357. FULL TEXT

Walsh D, Downe S. Appraising the quality of qualitative research. Midwifery. 2006; 22(2):108-19. FULL TEXT 

Dixon-Woods, M., Shaw, R.L., Smith, J.A. The problem of appraising qualitative research. BMJ Quality & Safety, 2004, 13,223-225. FULL TEXT 


Kneale, D., Thomas, J., & Harris, K. (2015). Developing and Optimising the Use of Logic Models in Systematic Reviews: Exploring Practice and Good Practice in the Use of Programme Theory in Reviews. PLoS ONE, 10(11), e0142187. FULL TEXT